วันศุกร์ที่ 5 ธันวาคม พ.ศ. 2551

How to Grow Rose Apple # 2

How to Grow Rose Apple PAGE #2




Yield
In India, they say that a mature rose apple tree will yield 5 lbs (2 kg) of fruit each season. The fruits are, of course, very light in weight because they are hollow, but this is a very small return for a tree that occupies so much space.

Keeping Quality
Rose apples bruise easily and are highly perishable. They must be freshly picked to be crisp. Some studies of respiration rate and ethylene production in storage have been made in Hawaii. The fruit is non-climacteric.

Pests and Diseases
The rose apple tree has few insect enemies. In humid climates, the leaves are often coated with sooty mold growing on the honeydew excreted by aphids. They are also prone to leaf spot caused by Cercospora sp., Gloeosporium sp., and Phyllosticta eugeniae; algal leaf spot (Cephaleuros virescens); black leaf spot (Asterinella puiggarii); and anthracnose (Glomerella cingulata). Root rot caused by Fusarium sp., and mushroom root rot (Armillariella (Clitocybe) tabescens) attack the tree.

Food Uses
Around the tropical world, rose apples are mostly eaten out-of-hand by children. They are seldom marketed. In the home, they are sometimes stewed with some sugar and served as dessert. Culinary experimenters have devised other modes of using the cuplike halved fruits. One stuffs them with a rice-and-meat mixture, covers them with a tomato sauce seasoned with minced garlic, and bakes them for about 20 minutes. Possible variations are limitless. The fruit is made into jam or jelly with lemon juice added, or more frequently preserved in combination with other fruits of more pronounced flavor. It is also made into a sirup for use as a sauce or to flavor cold drinks. In Jamaica, the halved or sliced fruits are candied by stewing them in very heavy sugar sirup with cinnamon.


Food Value Per 100 g of Edible Portion*

Calories56
Moisture84.5-89.1 g
Protein0.5-0.7 g
Fat0.2-0.3 g
Carbohydrates14.2 g
Fiber1.1-1.9 g
Ash0.4-0.44 g
Calcium29-45.2 mg
Magnesium4 mg
Phosphorus11.7-30 mg
Iron0.45-1.2 mg
Sodium34.1 mg
Potassium50 mg
Copper0.01 mg
Sulfur13 mg
Chlorine4 mg
Carotene123-235 I.U.
Thiamine0.01-0.19 mg
Riboflavin0.028-0.05 mg
Niacin0.521-0.8 mg
Ascorbic Acid3-37 mg

*Analyses made in Central America and elsewhere.


Toxicity
The seeds are said to be poisonous. An unknown amount of hydrocyanic acid has been reported in the roots, stems and leaves. An alkaloid, jambosine, has been found in the bark of the tree and of the roots, and the roots are considered poisonous.


Other Uses
Fruit: In 1849, it was announced in Bengal that the ripe fruits, with seeds removed, could be distilled 4 times to make a "rosewater" equal to the best obtained from rose petals.
Branches: The flexible branches have been employed in Puerto Rico to make hoops for large sugar casks, and also are valued for weaving large baskets.


Bark: The bark has been used for tanning and yields a brown dye.
Wood: The sapwood is white. The heartwood is dark-red or brown, fibrous, close-grained, medium-heavy to heavy, strong; and has been used to make furniture, spokes for wheels, arms for easy chairs, knees for all kinds of boats, beams for construction, frames for musical instruments (violins, guitars, etc.), and packing cases. It is also popular for general turnery. It is not durable in the ground and is prone to attack by drywood termites.


The tree grows back rapidly after cutting to a stump and consequently yields a continuous supply of small wood for fuel. Rose apple wood makes very good charcoal.


Leaves: A yellow essential oil, distilled from the leaves, contains, among other properties, 26.84% dl-a-pinene and 23.84% l-limonene, and can be resorted to as a source of these elements for use in the perfume industry.
Flowers: The flowers are a rich source of nectar for honeybees and the honey is a good amber color. Much comes from the San Cristobal River Valley in Cuba.
Medicinal Uses: In India, the fruit is regarded as a tonic for the brain and liver. An infusion of the fruit acts as a diuretic.


A sweetened preparation of the flowers is believed to reduce fever. The seeds are employed against diarrhea, dysentery and catarrh. In Nicaragua, it has been claimed that an infusion of roasted, powdered seeds is beneficial to diabetics. They say in Colombia that the seeds have an anesthetic property.


The leaf decoction is applied to sore eyes, also serves as a diuretic and expectorant and treatment for rheumatism. The juice of macerated leaves is taken as a febrifuge. Powdered leaves have been rubbed on the bodies of smallpox patients for the cooling effect.
The bark contains 7-12.4% tannin. It is emetic and cathartic. The decoction is administered to relieve asthma, bronchitis and hoarseness. Cuban people believe that the root is an effective remedy for epilepsy.

READ HOW TO GROW ROSE APPLE PAGE #1

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